International bussiness performance appraisal - Essay Example The elements of benchmarking notably considered are time, quality and cost (Schiffauerova and Thomson, 2006, pg. 650). Benchmarking involves a methodology whereby the management of a firm identifies the leading companies in the industry then compares and contrasts their processes with those of their own. Benchmarking employs several methods, but all of them are geared to enabling the company achieve a competitive advantage over its rivals. In evaluating how benchmarking can be used in measuring the performance of the organisation, there are three key aspects and issues that relate to benchmarking. This includes why organisations should engage in benchmarking, the scope and limitations of benchmarking and the possible solutions. In tackling these key aspects, a business will know whether to use benchmarking and how to use it best (Goetsch and Davis, 2014, pg. 9). Benchmarking as an appraisal mechanism offers various advantages to the firm executing the approach. One of the key benefits that accrue to a firm when benchmarking is the performance improvement. Benchmarking sets the basis of performance development intended for facilitating competitiveness. In the quest for finding ways to outperform competitors, benchmarking ensures the fundamental survival of any business. Moreover, Camp (2003, pg. 29) suggests that benchmarking identifies best practices in the industry then establishes what comprises better-quality performance. The process of also benchmarking enumerates the gap between the actual performance and the anticipated performance thereby instituting real objective facts about the business. Consequently, this provides the business entity with what improvement entails and the rationale to improve (Dragolea and Cotirlea, 2009, pg. 820). Benchmarking also helps organisations to focus on transformation and presents the direction for the transformation process. Organisational
The Condition of Women During the French Revolution In Women and the Limits of Citizenship in the French Revolution, Olwen H. Hufton expresses her intention to show that women's responses to their various situations during the revolution "transformed and modified the entire history of the period 1789-1815."(1) In order to demonstrate her point, Hufton evaluates the Paris "engendered crowd" and their interest in popular sovereignty, the gender complexities of the revolutionary reform policies, and the "guerilla warfare" of women in the provinces.(2) The complexity of women's roles in the French Revolution, she notes, did involve bread rioters, members of political clubs, and defenders of religious traditions, but she resists the "simple evolutionary view of a revolutionary woman," such as the politically incompatible woman whose involvement became a "serial disaster" (3) or the fanatical woman of political clubs and religion.(4) In 1789, bread rioters marched to Versailles, dried their rain-soaked clothing in the assembly hall, disrupted the proceedings with rowdy behavior, invaded the queen's bedroom, and pressured the king into a humiliating journey to Paris, where the "chief baker" could be coerced into providing bread.(5) A crowd of women in 1789 removed the king from the Versailles court where he could be influenced by his wife's foreign family and established Paris as the center of French politics. However, Hufton concludes that "the most persistent ghost of the French Revolution," the "spectre" that would "haunt" future politicians and deprive women of the right to participate in elections, was the subversive woman of 1795-96. (6) I will show how Hufton develops her theme of women in specific situations that impact the condition of women during the French Revolution, especially the 1795-96 counter-revolutionary woman that other historians of the French Revolution, such as Suzanne Desan, recognize to be significant in the changing trends in the condition of women during the French Revolution. Joan Wallach Scott and Susan Dalton contribute insights into the roles of Olympe de Gouges and Madame Roland, Darline Gay Levy and Harriet B. Applewhite develop the subtheme of militant women in Paris, and Joan B. Landes discusses women in the "public sphere," while Suzanne Desan explains how women created a public sphere through religious activism. Despite the legal prohibition of participation of women in the public sphere after 1793, some women succeeded in influencing French policies regarding religion through clever, courageous activist efforts. Women did not succeed in acquiring the right to participate in elections until 1945, but they took advantage of other informal, or even illegal means, to influence French society.